One of the problems besetting modern life is the fragmentation of society.
Humanity as a whole is so divided and conflicted.
But the fragmentation extends to each of us as individuals as well. We are torn and dragged in every direction. We have to juggle our responsibilities between our family, employer, fellow employees, friends and myriads of other connections which pull us in so many different directions.
Needles to state, these conflicts contribute to emotional problems and get in the way not only of our happiness but also of our success in life.
The antidote to this is to instill true and genuine unity into our lives when we recite and meditate on the words: “Shema Yisroel, Hear O Israel, G‑d is our G‑d, G‑d is one.”
Realizing that everything in the universe is an extension of a truly one G‑d, we are empowered to direct all of our activities towards that Oneness. It helps us unify all of our disparate interests and responsibilities.
This unifying experience has eluded most people most of the time. With the coming of Moshiach and the Final Redemption that will change. The most dramatic prediction concerning the Final Redemption is that the entire world will bask in that serene and exciting feeling of Divine Oneness.
Asking for a Gift
The Torah records how Moses implored G‑d to enter the Promised Land. In the opening verse of this week’s parsha, Moses recounts:
Vo’eschanan-And I implored G‑d at that time…”
The Midrash tells us that there are actually 10 different expression of prayer in the Torah. The word that Moses used, Vo’eschanan: (“And I implored”), is actually the last of the ten expressions and forms of prayer.
The Midrash explains that this, the tenth expression, implies asking for something even if we don’t deserve it. We nevertheless appeal to G‑d’s graciousness; asking Him to grant our requests, despite the fact that we may have not earned His rewards.
Moses, in his humility, felt he did not deserve that G‑d should grant him his request based on his deeds, yet he appealed to G‑d’s graciousness; to grant his request to enter the Promised Land.
To better understand this tenth and last form of prayer invoked by Moses it will be helpful to analyze the different nuances of prayer exemplified by the ten terms used for prayer:
Crying and Crying: Verbal and From the Heart
The first two expressions of prayer are sha’avah and tsa’akah which both translate as “crying.”  However, there is a difference between them. According to the Zohar, sha’avah is oral or spoken, whereas tsa’akah is an inaudible cry from the heart. Accordingly, the Zohar states, tsa’akah is a powerful expression of pain that cannot be verbalized and is therefore a more effective form of prayer.
The Animal Soul’s Cries
The third expression is na’akah which means “moaning.” According to the Metzudos commentary on Ezekiel, it is the sound of a dying person’s moan.
In the context of prayer it seems that it is even deeper expression than the one whose cries cannot be verbalized; but, there is still a sign of life and hope. Moaning is the sound given by a person who has reached rock bottom and no longer harbors hope. His or her emotions are dead, erased by hopelessness. We’ve seen these three responses to suffering in the prayers of Holocaust survivors. While some could verbalize their pain, others could feel their pain without articulating it. There were still others who couldn’t even express it in their hearts.
On a deeper mystical level, the Tzemach Tzedek (third leader of Chabad) explains that na’akah refers specifically to the cries of the body and Animal Soul when it feels its life is ending. This form of prayer is related to the symbolism of the Shofar, which conveys the idea of one’s inner cry, but with the horn of an animal because the cry emanates from one’s Animal Soul, as well.
In other words, the other levels of crying are the G‑dly soul’s feelings of anguish. But the ultimate level of crying is when the Animal Soul feels its degradation and hopeless decline and wants to climb out of the morass.
The Joy of Prayer
The fourth expression is Rinah which means “song.” This refers to the joyous side of prayer which focuses on the praises of G‑d and expressions of gratitude to Him for all the good, both natural and miraculous, in our lives.
The fact that rinah is mentioned after the anguished forms of prayer means that, ultimately, we should end our prayers with a sense of confidence, relief and joy that G‑d has listened to our pleas.
This is like the rejoicing of the Festival of Sukkos that follows our solemn and heartfelt prayers of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.
Persistent Prayer
The fifth expression is pegiah, which has the connotation of pleading or persistent prayer to get what it is that we want from G‑d.  Pegiah occurs when we say to G‑d that we won’t let go of Him. No matter how many times our prayers have not been answered, we will continue to plead and beseech You.
Comforting and Endearing Prayer
The sixth expression of prayer is bitzur, which translates literally as “in distress” and “fortification.” Perhaps it refers to the way a person who is in distress seeks refuge and comfort in prayer.  In this context prayer is an escape from all the negative forces and experiences that surround us. 
Chassidic thought teaches that daily prayer instills in us the tranquil aura of Shabbos; it brings us peace of mind and serenity just like Shabbos.
The seventh expression is keriah ­ “calling out” and it is connected to the preceding one of bitzur.  The word keriah has the connotation of endearment. Rashi pointed out that the word “Vayikra-And He called” in the beginning of Leviticus refers to G‑d calling out to Moses before engaging in conversation with him, as a sign of endearment and affection.
When we are in a state of prayer, we feel G‑d’s closeness and we call out to Him with love and affection.
In addition, keriah has the connotation of inviting. When we are situated in the cocoon of prayer, we invite G‑d into our lives; we feel G‑d’s closeness and His desire to dwell in our hearts and souls.
Humble and Introspective Prayer
The eighth expression of prayer is nipol, which means “falling down.” This term is found with respect to Moses’ falling down in prayer to procure G‑d’s forgiveness of the Jewish people. This is an overt expression of humility that is an integral part of prayer. We practice this form of prayer every time we kneel and bow during the Amidah. To be receptive to G‑d’s blessing and forgiveness we must come before Him with humility.
The ninth expression for prayer is pilul, which can be rendered as “judgment.” In prayer we judge our relationship with G‑d and in introspection, judge ourselves, asking whether we deserve the things we are asking G‑d to give us.
G‑d’s Grace
The Tenth and final expression is tachnunim, which translates as “supplication” but the root of this word is chein, which means “grace. As we learned earlier in this essay, this implies that we ask G‑d to give us what we want, not because we deserve it, but because of G‑d’s graciousness.
Ten Ways to Ask for Moshiach
The lesson from these ten expressions and aspects of prayer is that we must try to incorporate all of them in our own prayers. However, we may ask, which of the ten is most relevant and effective for securing the Final Redemption?
It may be suggested that Moses provided us with the answer, inasmuch as his situation can serve as a precedent for our “crossing the Jordan” into the Land of Israel with Moshiach.
Of all forms of prayer, it seems that the most powerful is the tenth, tachnunim, in which we invoke G‑d’s graciousness. Every other form of prayer can be countered by an argument that our prayers were not sincere enough, or that we may not have earned that which we request. But when we invoke G‑d’s grace there is no counter argument. So, we tell G‑d no matter how far we have degenerated in Galus, no matter how undeserving we may be, we beseech Him to be gracious to us and allow us to cross over into the Promised Land of Redemption with Moshiach at our head, imminently!